For example, daughters, but not sons, of a fortune-teller train early to become fortune-tellers. Boys may train to sell cars. Gypsy spirituality, part of the core culture of Gypsies, derives from Hindu and Zoroastrian concepts of kintala —balance and harmony, as between good and evil. When that balance is upset, ancestors send signals to keep people on track. The mysticism of fortune-tellers and tarot readers—though such services to non-Gypsies are not the same as Gypsies' own spirituality—has bases in Gypsy spirituality.
Many Gypsies are Christians, with denominational allegiances that reflect their countries of origin. Historically, toward the beginning of the second millennium B. The story claimed that they had been oppressed and forced into idol-worship in Egypt, and that the Pope had ordered them to roam, as penitence for their former lack of faith. This story also played on legends of a common heritage of Gypsies and Jews, which were partly based on actual overlap of these two ethnic cultures in marginal trades and ghettos.
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Sway indicated that the story of an Egyptian origin convinced Europeans until the early sixteenth century when the church became convinced these "penitents" were frauds. The church moved to isolate its followers from Gypsies: "As early as excommunication became the punishment for having one's fortune told by a Gypsy More effective than the policy of excom munication was the assertion by the Catholic Church that the Gypsies were a cursed people partly responsible for the execution of Christ. Although European churches have a long history of condemning Gypsies, their magic, and their This gypsy woman is participating in a traditional dance.
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They celebrate the pomona feast for the dead, at which the feasters invite the dead to eat in heaven. Also, preparation for their slava feast requires thorough cleaning of the interior of the host's house, its furniture, and its inhabitants, as the host transforms a section of the house into a church. The feast ceremony begins with coffee for the guests, prayer and a candle for the saints.
Today, around the world, Christian fundamentalist revival movements have been sweeping through Rom, Romnichal, and other groups of Gypsies. Since the mids, through Assemblies of God, various American groups have formed Gypsy churches.
Gypsies have tended to syncretize or blend their ethnic Gypsy folk religion with more established religions, such as Christianity. Gypsy religious beliefs are mostly unrelated to the business of fortune-telling.
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Silverman pointed out that while Gypsies may disbelieve Gypsy "magic," and "often joke about how gullible non-Gypsies are," in some ways, others act as believers; fortune-tellers generally treat their reading room as sacred and may "consult elder Gypsy women who are known to be experts in dream interpretation, card reading, and folk healing". Gypsies use code-names to mention certain evil-spirits to other Gypsies; and Gypsies sometimes cast curses on other Gypsies or ward them off.
Also, stated Silverman, Gypsy fortune-tellers use diverse religious iconography to create impressions out of a belief "that good luck and power can come from the symbols of any religion. Gypsy Americans have found customers for their enterprises among other poorer members of U. Mobility and adaptation characterize Gypsy trades. From their beginnings, their traditional occupations have catered to other groups, and at the same time maintained Gypsies' separation.
In their essay in Urban Gypsies, Matt and Sheila Salo explain that "the main features of all occupations were that they were independent pursuits, required little overhead, had a ubiquitous clientele, and could be pursued while traveling" in urban and rural areas. Moreover, Gypsies have adapted to different locales and periods. Silverman discusses a change in occupations in twentieth century America that parallels the urbanization of the Rom.
After their arrival in the s, the Rom followed nomadic European trades such as coppersmithing, refining, and dealing in horses for the men, and begging or fortune-telling for the women. They would camp in the country and interact mostly with the rural population, venturing into the cities only to sell their services and purchase necessities. As the automobile supplanted horse travel, the Rom became usedcar dealers and repairmen, occupations that they still pursue.
When metalworking skills became less important, Gypsies learned new trades, including the selling of items such as watches and jewelry. As Sutherland points out in Gypsies, Tinkers and Other Travellers, "In the kumpania men and women cooperate with each other in exploiting the economic resources of their area. These groups always comprise members of the same sex, however, women often take along children of either sex. Wortacha may also include young unmarried Gypsies who learn the skills of the adults. Adults work as equals, dividing expenses and profits equally.
As a token of respect for an elder, an extra amount may be given, but unmarried trainees receive only what others will give them. The Rom do not earn wages from another Rom. As a rule, Gypsies profit from non-Gypsies only. In the United States and other countries including England and Wales , Gypsy Americans divide geographic territories to minimize competition between Gypsy businesses. Gypsies, supremely mobile and profit-making traders, became dealers of vehicles.
Romnichals took an early American role as horse traders, and achieved particular success in Boston.
For a while at least, the label 'horse trader' or 'horse dealer' seemed almost synonymous with 'Gypsy. Many of the Rom, who arrived in America after the horse trade's heyday, sell cars. Other mobile service contributions of the Gypsies have included driveway blacktopping, house painting, and tinsmithing.
Gypsy tinkers, who were mostly Romanian-speaking Gypsies, were essential to various industries such as confectioneries, because they retinned large mixing bowls and other machinery on-site. They also worked in bakeries, laundries, and anywhere steam jackets operated. By the s the Rom group of Gypsy Americans virtually controlled the business of fortune-telling. Their advertisements and shop windows have their undeniable place on American boardwalks, roads, and streets. Gypsy mysticism, as represented in fortune-teller costumes and props such as the crystal ball and tarot deck, have impacted on American culture directly, and through their media representations and imitations, such as the likes of commercially produced Ouija boards.
Gypsies have maintained a presence and influence in America's quasi-religious, commercially mystical functions. Worldwide, Gypsies are most famous for their contributions as musicians. In the United States, Hungarian Slovak Gypsies, mostly violists, have played popular Hungarian music at immigrant weddings. Historically, Gypsies have contributed to music Americans play.
Flamenco, which Gypsies are credited with creating in Spain, has its place in America, particularly in the Southwest. Django Rheinhardt, a well-known European Gypsy who contributed to American culture, is perhaps the all-time greatest jazz guitarist. Furthermore, Klezmer music of Jewish immigrants overlaps with music of Eastern European Gypsies, especially in oriental, flatted-seventh chords played on a violin or clarinet.
There are intriguing parallels between Gypsies and African Americans in European and American cultural history. According to legend, some of these men had eloped with Gypsy daughters. When African American ex-slave minstrels first attempted to taste the freedom of the road in post-Reconstruction America, some claimed to adopt the ethnicity, or at least the title, of Gypsies Konrad Bercovici, "The American Gypsy," Century Magazine, , , pp. In popular American musical traditions of jazz, blues, and rock, the Gypsy has remained a powerful referent.
In the United States, Rom Gypsies have dominated a niche for fortune-tellers, who are also known as palmists, readers, or advisers. A reader will try to establish a steady relationship with the customer, whether in person, by telephone, or by mail. Readers will also try to use the customer's language, usually English or Spanish.
Fortune-tellers set up shop where they can make money. Often, they serve a working-class clientele composed of other ethnic minorities. They tend to choose visible locales where they can operate freely: New York supports a great many fortune-tellers, while Los Angeles where more Gypsies sell real estate and cars has relatively few because of strict laws governing fortune-telling.
Daughters of successful fortune-tellers traditionally become fortune-tellers whether or not they are interested. Their family business is part of their household. Special attention from American government authorities has seldom benefitted Gypsies. Some states and districts maintain policies and statutes that prohibit fortune-tellers, require them to pay hundreds of dollars for annual licenses, or otherwise control activities in which Gypsies engage.
Despite the unconstitutionality of such measures, some rules apply specifically to Gypsies by name. One excuse for this discrimination is the confusion between ethnic Gypsies and vagrants. Gypsy parents skeptical of non-Gypsy schooling have run afoul of truant officers.
After a long history of avoidance of local authorities, Gypsies in the United States and elsewhere are becoming more politically active in defense of their civil and human rights; an international organization of Roma people has been recognized by the United Nations. Many Gypsy contributors to American culture have been performers.
Scholars, educators, and others interested in the study of the Roma and analogous itinerant or nomadic groups. Works to disseminate information aimed at increasing understanding of Romani culture in its diverse forms. Publishes the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society.